There are two kinds of evidence that prove Darwinian evolution true and biblical Creationism false.
I. The first kind of evidence is obtained by using the six tenets of Darwinism to make testable predictions (not that Darwinism can predict how things will evolve in the future, but that it predicts what we should find in living or ancient species when we study them).
—Since there are fossil remains of ancient life, we should be able to find some evidence for evolutionary change in the fossil record. The deepest (and oldest) layers of rock would contain the fossils of more primitive species, and some fossils should become more complex as the layers of rock become younger, with organisms resembling present-day species found in the most recent layers. And we should be able to see some species changing over time, forming lineages showing “descent with modification” (adaptation).
—We should be able to find some cases of speciation in the fossil record, with one line of descent dividing into two or more. And we should be able to find new new species forming in the wild.
—We should be able to find examples of species that link together major groups suspected to have common ancestry, like birds with reptiles and fish with amphibians. Moreover, these “missing links” (more aptly called “transitional forms”) should occur in layers of rock that date to the time when the groups were supposed to have diverged.
—We should expect that species show genetic variation for many traits (otherwise there would be no possibility of evolution happening).
—Imperfection is the mark of evolution, not of conscious design [Creationism]. We should be able to find cases of imperfect adaptation, in which evolution has not been able to achieve the same degree of optimality as would a creator.
—We should be able to see natural selection acting in the wild.
II. The second kind of evidence which proves evolution true and creationism false are “retrodictions“: facts and data that aren’t necessarily predicted by the theory of evolution but only make sense in light of the theory of evolution. Examples are:
—patterns of species distribution on the earth’s surface.
—peculiarities of how organisms develop from embryos.
—the existence of vestigial features that are of no apparent use.
Darwin spent some twenty years amassing evidence for his theory before publishing The Origin of Species. That was more than one hundred and fifty years ago. So much knowledge has accumulated since then! So many more fossils found; so many more species collected and their distribution mapped around the world; so much more work in uncovering the evolutionary relationships of differing species. And whole new branches of science, undreamt of by Darwin, have arisen, including molecular biology and systematics, the study of how organisms are related.
As we shall see [in future posts], all the evidence—both old and new—leads ineluctably to the conclusion that evolution is true.
—Excerpts from Why Evolution is True by Jerry Coyne, professor of Evolution at the University of Chicago, chapter 1
End of post.